USING DRAMA-IN-EDUCATION TO CREATE MEANINGFUL CONTEXTS FOR HIV AND AIDS AWARENESS AMONGST THE YOUTH: A CASE STUDY
This paper provides a detailed account of how drama-in-education was incorporated into a third year education module entitled ‘Issues and Challenges in Education’ for B Ed students, to provide meaningful contexts for student learning and engagement. The module focuses on three sections namely HIV and Aids, Multicultural Education and Professional Educators shaping democratic schooling.
Drama-in-education strategies such as frozen image building and role play were used as vehicles for the presentation of the sections on HIV and AIDS. The sections that students dramatised were theories of HIV and AIDS, the impact of HIV and AIDS on Africa and Behaviour Change theories. The dramatisation of these concepts formed the starting point for the interrogation of key issues relating to HIV and Aids and its impact on both the students’ lives and society at large. The participants in the role plays provided feedback on how they felt about their roles and the class was afforded an opportunity to discuss the key issues emerging from the role plays thereby creating a space for healthy debate and discussion.
The measure of success of the implementation of drama-in-education strategies to create meaningful contexts for student learning was evaluated by means of observation, open-ended questionnaires, students’ diary entries and role plays. The findings indicate that drama-in-education creates more meaningful contexts for student learning compared to the traditional lecturing as students are afforded opportunities to engage with the role plays and to interrogate issues in a more meaningful and relevant manner. Students also indicated that the use of drama-in-education as a strategy to convey information leads to enhanced student learning as they are not only able to remember the material better because of the creation of a meaningful context, but they also become part of the unfolding drama. This ensures that they become connected to the issues and events highlighted and not detached from them as would be the case if they were studying the material on their own or listening to a lecture. A consequence of this for student learning is greater insight and reflection on the impact of HIV and Aids on their lives thereby leading to more informed choices.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
ARTIST PROOF STUDIO: VISUAL ARTISTS COLLABORATING FOR SOCIAL ADVOCACY
Artist Proof Studio (APS), a community printmaking studio in Johannesburg, was founded to support democratisation in post-apartheid South Africa. From 1991 to the present APS has undergone continual evolution. APS sustains itself by adopting a model of income generation through corporate partnerships, commercial market activities and collaborating partnerships with advocacy organisations such as Sonke Gender Justice.
This paper focuses on a collaborative project with Sonke Gender Justice and the One Man Can campaign that provides the visual imaging of an advocacy campaign for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) through mural painting, posters, comics and visual aids directed to youth. APS has successfully developed an AIDS Action intervention using arts-based methods for generating awareness and activism in urban and community sites. APS links the arts to the public education and advocacy programs designed by Sonke Gender Justice, adding value to the campaign through the skills of artists, education programmes and arts based workshops to generate visual tools that enhance the campaign. Artist Proof Studio provides a cross section of sophisticated urban youth and rural participants who understand contemporary trends and accessible messaging. This intervention casts the visual artist in the role of change agent, in one of South Africa’s most pressing social issues.
Key Words: visual artist, change agent, VMMC, mural art, advocacy campaign,
Department of Visual Art
Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture
University of Johannesburg
Auckland Park Bunting Road Campus
Tel: +2711 559 1112
Bruynse, Ingrid; Mpherwane, Maijang Sam
YOUTH ON SCREEN: TELEVISION AND HIV/AIDS INITIATIVES IN SOUTH AFRICA
This paper presents a multimedia overview of the initiatives on television and radio that have been undertaken by the SABC over the past seven years, as part of their mandate as the national broadcaster: “to inform, to educate and to entertain”. We are asking the question: “have educational television series for HIV/Aids actually made a difference?” and we will explore the increasing interest in how impact is measured in the educational media field, as opposed to entertainment programming. HIV and AIDS messaging strands in the following series: Intersexions; Soul City; Soul Buddyz: Siyangoba! Beat It will be discussed.
School of Language, Literacies & Media Education
Mpherwane, Maijang Sam
Gibbs, Andrew; Jolly, Rose; Stevenson, Fergus; Jeeves, Alan; Mngoma, Nomusa; and Willan, Samantha
A TWO-PRONGED SERVICE AND COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION INTERVENTION TO REDUCE GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE AND HIV VULNERABILITY IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA
Gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV have been recognized as “dual epidemics” in South Africa and the pathways between violence and HIV have now been mapped and measured. Despite this, interventions to tackle violence in the context of HIV have had disappointing outcomes. Reviews emphasise how social contexts undermine interventions and recognize the need to start to tackle these contexts for effective GBV and HIV prevention.
Cathy Campbell proposes that social contexts can be conceptualized as three overlapping spheres: the material-political, the symbolic and the relational. In this paper we discuss our two-pronged intervention that seeks to tackle two of the social contexts undermining effective HIV and GBV prevention interventions: the symbolic context of gender inequality through community mobilization; and the relational context of weak GBV health services, unlinked to HIV service provision. This work builds on the team’s ten year involvement in a rural area of KwaZulu-Natal that has mapped out the multiple dimensions of GBV and HIV in the area.
Our approach to tackling the symbolic context of gender inequality is heavily rooted in the work of Freire and specifically Boal’s work on community forum theatre. Community forum theatre offers a way to engage at the community level on gender, with community members especially young people involved as active participants, developing alternative gender roles and proliferating these alternative possibilities within the community, ideally generating community social action to tackle underlying issues of gender inequality. The relational context in the community is of weak and non-existent government GBV services not aligned with extant HIV care, and effective but small non-governmental responses. Building on the team’s work we will develop a method to map these services and work to integrate and strengthen them. In this paper we reflect on the theoretical and practical background to this work, the problems we foresee and the strengths of our approach, with a particular focus on our use of forum theatre for transforming gender relations.
Andrew Gibbs1, Rose Jolly2, Stevenson Fergus2, Alan Jeeves2, Nomusa Mngoma2 & Samantha Willan1
1 HEARD, University of KwaZulu-Natal
2 Queens University, Canada
EXPERIENCE MZIMELA: LESSONS LEARNT FROM WORKING WITH THE UBUNYE CULTURAL HERITAGE AND ECO-TOURISM CO-OPERATIVE
Ubunye BaMzimela Cultural Heritage and Eco-tourism Primary Co-operative was successfully launched on February 26th, 2011. Most members are high school students and other unemployed yound adults from the community. At the present UBUNYE offers Drama performances depicting traditions, the current life and concerns of the community. The pieces are performed for tourists either in the location on location at the Mzimela Community(situated between Eshowe and Mtunzini)Alternatively, the co-op members travel to various locations to perform their plays. Currently, Ubunye has three originally devised plays in its repertoire: The New Style, The Lobola, and The Second Wife in Ubunyes repertoire at the moment, The pieces focus on current mostly gender and health related concerns in the community. The plays were created from real concerns of the community members and discussions and their staging provided a platform of empowerment for critical issues not usually discussed openly.
As a result of the enterprising and forward looking attitude of the community Ubunye is now is fully operational, thriving and generating income for 62+ people on a regular basis while creating further opportunities for approximately two hundred in habitants in the larger Mzimela community. Those immediately impacted are the high school youth in Ubunye: approximately 20 teenage girls and 21 boys (mostly orphans) regularly participating in the co-op activities and benefiting from the training workshops. In addition, there are 21 adults performing and creating and selling crafts.
Ubunye offers the following additional services: Traditional Zulu dancing and singing; Cultural food and refreshments; and Tours of the Ngoye and Dlinza Forests
The following unique, hand-made and easy to carry items are available for purchase on location, after performances in Richards Bay and elsewhere, and in various regional markets. Consignment options are currently explored with nearby hotels, craft shops and supply stores:
Sun-dyed bags, tablecloths and T-shirts; Beaded rings, necklaces and bracelets; Handmade origami books and invitation cards.
Ubunye has its own email address and designated phone numbers providing easy accessibility for the tourists. Basic computer and Internet skills were provided to 30+ members of the community with advanced computer skills made available for board members. Ubunye is available for half day and full day tours as well as for special events. It appeals to a predominantly younger, progressive and active market with significant potential for the interest of Scandinavian tourists and advertises itself as a unique and authentic experience: the real deal. (Brochure attached)
Centre for HIV and AIDS Networking (HIVAN)
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Howard College Campus
HEARING VOICES: PARTICIPATION AND MEANING IN THEATRE FOR HIV AND AIDS
Theatre and drama approaches are a popular way to draw young people into HIV and AIDS awareness programmes. These approaches have been used in South Africa since the beginning of the response to the epidemic in the 1990s, but how do they work?
Previous studies suggest that for this theatre to be effective, it must be aesthetically appealing, dramatic, popular, and culturally appropriate. It should also incorporate the voices of those who represent its audiences; and theatre-makers and health programme developers must find ways for communities to participate if the theatre is to be made meaningful.
This paper looks at the different levels of participation in HIV and AIDS theatre projects, and how greater participation can result in greater meaning for the project participants, and a greater impact on the communities from which they come.
The theoretical underpinnings of such projects include the pedagogy of Paulo Freire and an understanding of development communication issues.
The paper looks in particular at the example of the UVHAA “Man-to-Man” drama project conducted in the Umdoni district on the KZN South Coast, and attempts to draw lessons and understandings from this experience in order to improve practice.
Centre for Culture and Media Studies
University of KwaZulu-Natal
CREATING EXPLORATIVE SPACES FOR YOUTH TO FIND THEIR OWN VOICE. THE UNIQUE ROLE OF THE EXPERIENTIAL EXPRESSIVE ARTS IN BUILDING SELF LEADERSHIP SKILLS
BACKGROUND: Research shows that many of the public health interventions in HIV do succeed in building participant knowledge and skills yet changes in behaviour are not taking place as reflected in HIV incidence and prevalence rates. It is suggested that a foundation program for youth that builds a sense of self via embodied creativity is essential in enabling alternate life choices.
METHODS: An experiential artmaking programme in movement, visual arts, narrative, sound, and improvisation with a strong emphasis on experiential body based learning for building self trust and personal resilience.
The findings of a 6 week pilot experiential art making experience with youth male and female ages 15-17 years in a peri-urban area of Durban suggest the positive value of this experience for youth in achieving the objectives for self –leadership: building self awareness, self value and self trust; building tolerance for personal and social uncertainty, strategies in self support and building skills in self/ other interaction.
RESULTS: It is demonstrated that even in a short duration program the unique role of the experiential artmaking explorative space for youth is seen in that they come to see themselves more clearly, consolidate a sense of self and to “ know it in them”.
Seeing self more clearly enables youth to practice self trust, consolidate self confidence and create a firmer foundation for decision-making. Consolidation of the foundation of a sense of self enables the youth to hold their own in the face of external pressure, realize personal potential and to set and hold future goals as a dominant influence in their lives.
The views of the youth themselves substantiate that a firm sense of self enables healthy life choices in the face of external pressures.
CONCLUSIONS: An expressive multimodal arts process can be viewed as instrumental in developing self –leadership i.e. strengthening self esteem and self efficacy and building tolerance for personal and social uncertainty. Practising discernment skills in risk-taking behaviours are precursors in the chain of personal choices leading to preventive HIV/AIDS behaviours to ultimately impact on HIV incidence among the youth.
University of KwaZulu-Natal.
EXPLORING THE EVERYDAY IN A RURAL VILLAGE IN MALAWI, AFRICA IN THE AGE OF AIDS; BRINGING TOGETHER INSIDER AND OUTSIDER PERSPECTIVES
In this paper I explore the ways in which experiential learning (involving Canadian students and rural youth and elders in Malawi) creates an interchange of information that can lead to knowledge production. Bridging the gaps between the youth and the elders is the focus of this research. I report on, drawing on work about photo-voice and photo-diaries. Photo-voice is a form of participatory action research (pictures and interpretations) photo-diaries is a way to develop dialogues about everyday information that occurs in everyday settings as it unfolds. Placing the camera in the hands of the person who experience life with a high prevalence of AIDS and HIV opens a new space for participation and learning. What I am interested in is what happens and why this happens through what seems to be a more people-centered approach to open a dialogue and promote a deeper understanding of a rural village and how the community are living with AIDS and HIV. In the paper, I analyze workshops about using the cameras and the ways that sharing and the ways that the photos give voice to an Indigenous population. In the work I have found that intergenerational learning barriers seem to melt while viewing and discussing the meaning of these exchanges of information, providing a transformative process for all people involved. But what counts as a transformation and what are some of the challenges of describing this work? What do the photos, photo-diaries and personal narratives tell us? How might this type of work be used to inform community-based projects?
Mcgill University – Canada
YOUTH, THE ARTS AND HIV/AIDS: REFLECTIONS AND NEXT STEPS
What are the socially transformative possibilities of youth engagement with HIV/AIDS work? How do we determine the impact of arts based research and education with youth? What are the possibilities and limitations of using the arts as a tool for social change in the age of AIDS? In this presentation, I draw on a series of youth projects in photovoice, drama, collage and other art forms to think through 1) the motivation for using the arts in HIV prevention and education; 2) what has been achieved/not achieved; and 3) what questions and issues might inform and deepen the next stages of our work.
University of Toronto
STREET LIFE ON THE WAY TO SCHOOL: THE EXPERIENCES OF POOR AND WORKING CLASS YOUTHS
In my research I have used the photo-voice method to understand more about education in the South African post-apartheid city. In doing so I generated accounts that give me insights into how learners from poor and working class families experience the gritty life of the street on the way to and from school. Dangers abound. But the street is also a site for them learning about new horizons in life. In this exhibition I present some examples of these accounts. I also engage the ethical dilemma: when I am asked as a researcher to display my data, how can I ensure confidentiality by protecting the identity of person and place without violating their identity and dignity?
School of Education and Development
University of KwaZulu-Natal
IN THE FRAME: LEARNERS USE PHOTOGRAPHS TO EXPLORE COMMUNITIES OF CARE AND CARING IN THE CONTEXT OF HIV AND AIDS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN RURAL SCHOOL
“Who cares?” asked, Berman (2002). This question is at the agenda of both education and HIV and AIDS literature. Efforts to provide care and support, particularly in the age of HIV and AIDS vary across studies and are not homogeneous within school contexts. There is a growing consensus amongst policy makers, researchers and individuals for a more comprehensive approach towards care and support in the context of HIV and AIDS. These contextual changes have necessitated the significant role young people play in response to addressing HIV and AIDS, care and support related issues. Specifically, young people are not just passive recipients of services but play an indispensable part in addressing care and support in their lives and the lives of other people in their communities. Towards a more comprehensive and sustainable school policies in relation to care and support, discussions need to become inclusive of learners so that their needs can be reflected in school policy design. This study employs photovoice-a participatory methodology with purposively 20 grade 11 learners to explore communities of care and caring in the context of HIV and AIDS in a South African rural school. As learnt in qualitative research, data is analysed using open coding. Measures of credibility are applied and ethical considerations are adhered to. The photovoice (photographs and narrations) is discussed as a unit of analysis and reflect themes around memory and evaluation of care and caring; the impact of care and caring; social relationships forged between educators, learners and researcher; the desire for inclusion and personal development. The photovoice does not only capture care and caring experiences in the school context but also provoke critical reflection, open up dialogue and new ideas about how care and caring is/should be organised within the school context.
Khanare Fumane P.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
YOUTH AND HIV AND AIDS IN MY COMMUNITY: ASSESSING PARTICIPATORY ARTS-BASED METHODS TO EXPLORE YOUTH’S PERSPECTIVES OF HIV AND AIDS IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA
Working with a group of 11 rural learners between November 29th-December 1st, 2010, I explored issues related to youth and HIV and AIDS in the community using digital storytelling. Reflected upon during this presentation is the pilot use of different assessment methods (survey, focus group, and photovoice as arts-based evaluation) to explore the practicality, challenges, and successes of participatory arts-based methodologies on HIV and AIDS education in the rural setting. Building off of the success and challenges of this experience I present the beginnings of a framework towards participatory arts-based evaluation tool. Of particular interest is how we define and understand “evidence” in assessment and evaluation method when working with participatory arts-based methods as well as three distinct components of this type of evaluation – process, products, and audience/community – that makes it distinct from other evaluation methods and tools. Since this is the beginning of a framework, further areas of development are also discussed.
EMPOWERING YOUNG PEOPLE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES AGAINST HIV: CHALLENGES AND POSSIBILITIES
According to the UNAIDS (2010) report titled “We can empower young people to protect themselves from HIV: Joint action for results”, in 2008 young people accounted for 40% of all new HIV infections in 15-49 year olds. The report highlights that about 3000 young people are infected with HIV each day and more than half of all sexually transmitted infections, other than HIV, (more than 180 million out of a global annual total of 340 million) occur among young people aged 15 to 24. Despite this, most young people still have no access to sexual and reproductive health programmes that provide the information, skills, services, commodities, and social support they need to prevent HIV. Previous studies advocate for education as the vaccine against new HIV infections among the youth. While there are many approaches to engaging young people to address issues of sexuality and HIV&AIDS, the use of participatory visual and arts-based methods has become the key feature of many programs. However, very little research has focussed on the challenges of using participatory visual methods with young people, especially in rural areas. This paper discusses my experiences of working within the “New teachers for new times: Visual methodologies for social change in rural education in the age of HIV and AIDS” project which employs participatory visual methodologies to equip teachers to engage young people in the fight against HIV. One of the lessons learnt from this project is that in order to give young people a voice in policies and programs addressing youth sexuality and HIV&AIDS, there should be more engagement with the teachers and adults who are the keepers of culture within communities.
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
Morojele, Pholoho; and Muthukrushna, Nithi
‘MY JOURNEY TO SCHOOL’: PHOTOVOICE ACCOUNTS OF RURAL CHILDREN’S EVERYDAY EXPERIENCES IN LESOTHO
This paper provides photovoice accounts of rural children’s own school journey in the Lesotho context. The journey to school represents important places and spaces in children’s everyday experiences, and is an in-between space outside the family, home and school. Twelve children (male = 6; female = 6) from three different rural villages participated in the study. The study employed a photographic technique, where children were entrusted with disposable cameras to act as recorders of salient places and spaces of their school journey. Based on children’s photographs, individual and focus group interviews were used to engage children in dialogue and discussion about the challenges, risks and pleasurable aspects of their school journey. The photovoice accounts illuminated how children actively define and re-define the varied places, power laden spaces and social relations embedded in the journey. The dynamics are often fluid with inherent tensions and contradictions. They also denoted how children used agency – for instance, formed into proactive groups to overcome the obstacles as they navigated rough terrains of their school journey. The study uses the immediacy of visual image to highlight how actively involving children in choosing what aspects of their lives they wish to share in a research project, could become a potential catalyst for policy and social action aimed at improving the schooling experiences of rural children.
Morojele, Pholoho and Muthukrushna, Nithi
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Morojele@ukzn.ac.za and email@example.com
CALLING THE SHOTS USING PHOTO VOICE: YOUNG PEOPLE AS RESEARCHERS
Power differences between adult researchers and participants, who comprise young people, can inhibit disclosure by participants, especially about sensitive topics like sexuality and HIV and AIDS. “Adultist” conceptualization of young peoples’ sexuality is limited because adults are outsiders to the socio-cultural milieu of young people. This paper presents findings of part of a research project, in which power differentials between the researcher and the research participants was minimized, by engaging young people themselves to participate in the research design and process, and work as “deep insider” researchers in an HIV and AIDS project. The participants were grade 10 learners and the project was located in the Life Sciences subject area. The creative process of enabling young people to participate in an HIV and AIDS project, by training them to take and analyze photographs, is explored. Borrowing the term from other researchers who describe this methodology as “photo voice”, ways in which young people develop their capacity to become positive agents for change in a society which is ravaged by HIV and AIDS, are examined. The use of visual methodology created a space for techno-training, and the subsequent empowerment of young people to engage in research about and for young people. Through the use of photo voice, which is inextricably linked to tenets of feminist and participatory action research models, young people’ awareness of the social construction of sexuality along axes of differentiation became heightened. Young people developed a definitive sense of activist purpose in the field of HIV and AIDS.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Murray, John; Mitchell, Claudia; and Labacher, Lukas
STAYING VIRAL: STUDYING THE PLACE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING IN YOUTH ADVOCACY EFFORTS FOR HIV AWARENESS AND PREVENTION
This paper is organized around a case study of YAHAnet (Youth, the Arts and HIV & AIDS: A social networking tool devoted to promoting and supporting the use of youth-focused arts-based methodologies in addressing HIV & AIDS awareness and prevention. We are interested in the different ways in which social networking tools are now being used with youth in addressing HIV & AIDS (see for example UNAIDS’ recent initiative to involve youth in an HIV policy making strategy through social networking), and are particularly concerned with how to actually document ‘what counts as evidence’ in evaluating the overall effectiveness. The paper draws on the evidence provided through the webtool itself, self-study, and the results of ground local activities. Going viral is easy, we argue, but staying viral is critical within the dynamic world of HIV & AIDS education.
John Murray, Claudia Mitchell, and Lukas Labacher
YESTERDAY AS A STUDY FOR TOMORROW: ON THE USE OF FILM TEXTS IN ADDRESSING GENDER AND HIV&IDS WITH SECONDARY YOUTH IN KWAZULU NATAL
This paper reports on preliminary findings from learners’ responses to the South African film Yesterday,. a visual text which provides a depiction of a woman’s life experiences in relation to being infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. It tells about her fears, hopes, dreams and suffering as a woman, mother and wife. In the paper I talk about how I used Yesterday as an entry point for secondary youth to engage with issues of gender and HIV and AIDS and in the context of isizulu. The study as a whole explored learners’ response to gender representations in Yesterday through reading and comprehension activities which focused on the relationship between the text and the experiences of the reader/viewer. The activities allowed learners to deconstruct and reconstruct text as potential writers. Questions, discussions, and predictions formed the core of these activities, before and after reading. Though there were challenges, critical thinking was encouraged through the development of self-reflexivity in worksheets and tasks that encouraged reading for meaning, understanding, and insight.
School of Language, Literacies, Media& Drama Education
Faculty of Education
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban, 4001 KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
About Drama for Life
To be Africa’s foremost leader in Applied Drama and Theatre Research and Practice in health, socio-economic, political and environmental transformation.
Drama for Life enhances the capacity of communities to take responsibility for the quality of their lives. We achieve this though a responsive integrated approach in Arts Activism, Development, Education, Research and Therapies which are appropriate to current social realities and cognizant of the rich knowledge of Africa.
Through Applied Drama we focus on:
- Capacity Development in HIV and Aids education, activism and therapy
- Human Rights and Social Justice
- Peace building, Transformation, Diversity Management and Social Cohesion
- And environmental sustainability
Playback Theatre provides the space for people to tell their life stories, giving shape and substance to what they experienced and, in so doing, their stories and their lives are validated through a process of witnessing.
Performers are trained to listen to people’s stories, and to reproduce their stories through live improvised performance. This theatre process requires skilled facilitation from a facilitator who acts as the channel between performer and audience members. The facilitator invites members of the audience to join the stage, to tell a personal story that is true, and then to select the roles the performers have to play. The audience member who has become the storyteller watches his or her story being performed instantaneously, and afterwards, together with the rest of the audience, reflects on the experience.
Playback Theatre requires formal training and accreditation with the Centre of Playback Theatre in the United States of America.
Drama for Life Playback Theatre Company
The Drama for Life Playback Theatre Company is the only existing Playback Theatre Company in Africa. The company was established by a former Drama for Life graduate, Katherine Barolsky, in 2009. The company has specialised in using Playback Theatre as a means to grapple with stigma, discrimination and trauma pertaining to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa. The Drama for Life Playback Theatre Company performs for universities, colleges, schools, NGOs and businesses. It also serves as a teaching tool for the Drama for Life – Applied Drama and Theatre Studies programme at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Nebe, Warren Director of Drama for Life, University of the Witwatersrand
Background: Warren Nebe has extensive experience as a theatre director, theatre and performance studies teacher, and drama therapist. He studied drama therapy, performance studies, directing, theatre of the oppressed and educational drama at New York University, including with Augusto Boal, Robert Landy and Richard Schechner. As Director of Drama for Life – Applied Drama and Theatre Programme, he leads an academic program that this year welcomed seventeen postgraduate students from nine countries across Africa, and is a hub for research on drama in education, activism and therapy.
Warren’s research focuses on identity construction, representation and memory in South Africa through an auto-ethnographic theatre-making approach. This research is articulated in the Transformation Project supported by the Wits Transformation Office and Carnegie Corporation. Notions of identity are explored in two theatre productions, ID Pending and Hayani, under his direction. Warren is also a research member of the Wits School of Human and Community Development, Apartheid Archives Research Project. His other research focuses on how an integrated drama and theatre education, therapy and activist approach can foster capacity development in HIV/AIDS and Human Rights education throughout Africa. He curated the SA Theatre Season in 2010, Honouring the Archive: Theatre, Memory and Social Justice, and again in 2011, titled: SA Theatre Season: The Personal Archive: Diversity in Conversation. He is currently working on a Facebook Performance Project exploring race, identity and culture in a cyber dialogue, and he is facilitating Drama for Life Company Laboratory and Drama for Life Playback Theatre performances for COP 17.
Director of Drama for Life
University of the Witwatersrand
USE OF MUSIC, DANCE AND POETRY TO RAISE HIV AND AIDS AWARENESS AND PREVENTION
HIV and AIDS is one of the most challenging manifestations in Southern Africa. It is an emergency that has immediate and long-term repercussions for the development of the region and for the lives of its people. According to Uniting the World against AIDS report (2008), South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people living with HIV and AIDS. Many programmes have been established to fight the pandemic as a matter of urgency. However, there still is an increasing number of learners, particularly in the schools, who are living with AIDS . There are HIV fighting organizations, but often in these programmes youth participation is overlooked and yet it is one of the key forums to fight HIV. Art such as music and dance is one of the powerful tools to bring youth together and disseminate knowledge.
This paper is based on a exploratory study conducted in KwaZulu-Natal. The target population of the study was a group of 20 learners and non-learners from Kwa-Mashu area with age ranging from 8-20. The study investigated at how music and dance can best be used to create HIV awareness among the youth.
The results of the study suggest that through participation in the process of music making and dance, the youth gain more knowledge about the HIV and AIDS. In addition, they also become more free to talk about the pandemic.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
INDIAN FEMALE HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS CONSTRUCTING SEXUALITY IN THE AGE OF AIDS: USING VISUAL PARTICIPATORY METHODOLOGIES
Aim: Globally, and particularly sub-Saharan Africa is facing a challenge with its inhabitants being increasingly infected with HIV. South Africa with its high HIV prevalence reveals that “young females continue to be at a higher risk of HIV infection than their male counterparts despite observed declines in HIV among females” (Shisana et.al, 2009: 32) and the implementation of HIV intervention programmes to reduce vulnerability. The HIV prevalence among Indians in SA is a conservative estimate as research regarding sexuality and HIV and AIDS in the Indian community has been very limited as many are averse to participating in surveys, believing that they are not vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, discussion regarding issues of sexuality is considered taboo and gender socialization is aligned to traditional constructs in this conservative community. This raises the concern of where and how Indian female adolescents acquire the relevant knowledge and how it influences the construction of their sexuality. This research therefore aims to explore how Indian female youth construct their sexuality in the age of AIDS, as well as the benefit of using visual participatory methodology for agency.
Method: A qualitative approach is adopted to delve into the Indian female adolescents’ construction of their sexuality. The study is located within the interpretative-critical paradigm being influenced by aspects of the transformative paradigm such as participatory research and feminist theory. Visual participatory methodologies, such as photo voice, photo narratives, drawings, collage and mapping are used to generate data, which has inherent research for social change. The sample of eight female adolescents was purposively selected from a co-ed secondary school in a peri-urban township to give voice to negotiation of their sexuality using focus group discussions. The analysis of the data is accomplished using open coding to allow for themes to emerge. Trustworthiness is ensured using Guba’s model.
Results: The preliminary findings around the role of the school, family, peers, and the media will be discussed.
Conclusions: The findings from this study will inform policy making, sexuality education and intervention strategies to curb the future trajectory of the HIV epidemic.
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
Pattman, Rob; and Stuart, Jean
HOW CAN YOU PERSUADE OTHERS TO ABSTAIN?’: ENCOURAGING PEER EDUCATORS NOT TO ASK QUESTIONS LIKE THIS BY USING PARTICIPATORY VIDEO, DRAMA AND TOOLKITS IN PEER TRAINING
What are some of the problems for engagement and empowerment when peer educators work with arts-based participatory drama and video workshops on campus and in schools? In considering this challenge we draw here on our work with peer educators based at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) which aims to address Youth as Knowledge Producers (2007) and promote ways of using arts-based methods effectively in the era of HIV and AIDS. Twelve student teachers at UKZN volunteered to participate in a peer training programme, which introduced students to ways of using video, drama, hip hop and collage as media for encouraging voices and promoting critical forms of self reflection. In the training programme they practised and engaged with these activities using themselves as resources and after 12 weeks they were invited to be peer educators and to facilitate classes with Grade 11 (15-16 year old) learners in a rural school. In this chapter we describe the peer education programme and our peer educators’ experiences of this, and then turn to their performances as peer educators in the schools. We focus on one lesson which used drama as a participatory methodology, and examine and critically evaluate the role of the peer educators as facilitators. We argue that they did not use drama in appropriate and effective ways to address issues relating to HIV and AIDS and to promote critical and reflective discussion. We discuss why this was the case given their experiences of engaging in participatory methods in the peer training programme. We argue for the importance of producing ‘tool kits’ or practical and conceptual guides for our peer educators. We argue, too, that videos of the sessions they conduct in schools be made and shown to the peer educators with the trainers, and we discuss how video feedback can be used as a participatory resource to promote critical forms of thinking and self reflection and develop more effective facilitation skills.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Taylor, Myra; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Dlamini, Nthabiseng; Mpanza, Lloyd; Ngcongo, Mabutho; and Zama, Khanyile
GETTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS THROUGH ROLE-PLAYS? DOES IT WORK?
Introduction. Youth in KwaZulu-Natal continue to be at high risk of HIV infection but many are disinterested in didactic messages promoting behaviour change.
Aim of presentation: Can role plays make a difference?
Methods. Working in high schools in rural and urban areas a team of facilitators has used role play as a strategy to encourage participation and reflection, and develop students’ skills to reduce their risk of HIV, other STI infections and teenage pregnancy.
Results. The presentation will discuss factors promoting student participation and barriers encountered and present some of the role plays that were filmed, and the students’ responses to being videoed. Can role plays and the discussions thereafter improve students’ self-efficacy and skills in communicating with partners and reducing risky sexual behaviour?
Conclusion. Role plays can be a novel method to get messages across but further evaluation is required as to their effectiveness with high school students.
Taylor Myra, Sathiparsad Reshma, Dlamini Nthabiseng, Mpanza Lloyd, Ngcongo Mabutho and Zama Khanyile
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Howard College Campus
Lembethe, Thembisa; Nzama, Sazi; van Laren, Liska; and Mthimkhulu, Thoba
YOU, ME AND HIV
On 6 July 2011, Thembisa Lembethe, Sazi Nzama, van Laren Liska, and Thoba Mthimkhulu presented an HIV and AIDS and STI workshop at a church camp in Eston, KwaZulu-Natal. The students presented two interactive workshops to children aged between 6- 9 and 10- 16. The younger children were requested to draw their interpretations of HIV and AIDS on pieces of paper and an age-appropriate discussion about HIV and AIDS was conducted with them. The older children were also involved in an interactive HIV and AIDS discussion and were then asked to write their questions/ ideas/opinions about HIV and AIDS on a piece of fabric. These pieces of fabric were sewn together to make a quilt. The workshops aimed to inform young adolescents about the nature of HIV and AIDS, how it is transmitted and prevented and also sought to dispel myths surrounding HIV and AIDS. Throughout the workshops, questions were encouraged and both the students and their audiences gained insight regarding the complex relationship that exists between You, Me & HIV.
Thembisa Lembethe, Sazi Nzama, Liska van Laren, and Thoba Mthimkhulu
University of KwaZulu-Natal firstname.lastname@example.org
van Laren, Linda
METAPHOR DRAWINGS TO INITIATE CONCEPTUALIZING HIV&AIDS EDUCATION INTEGRATION IN PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION- WHAT NEXT?
When a pre-service teacher makes a personalized metaphor drawing to conceive including HIV&AIDS education within another discipline, s/he is given an opportunity to consider restructuring of her/his teacher identity. During the drawing experience s/he can link teaching required in a discipline with addressing social issues related to HIV&AIDS education. This activity allows for disrupting the ‘comfort zone’ of teaching a discipline but does not give pragmatic suggestions and ideas to for the integration of HIV&AIDS education in the classroom situation. By providing possible strategies for integration pre-service teachers are able to extend or develop their own ways of making sense of considering the integration in teaching mathematics. In this study the final-year foundation and intermediate phase teachers were introduced to integrating HIV/AIDS education in Mathematics Education using metaphor drawings followed by providing a handout with possible integration activities that may be used in a mathematics classroom. A group of these pre-service teachers were then asked to reflect on integration of HIV/AIDS education in teacher preparation. The pre-service teachers indicated that they are under-prepared to teach in the HIV&AIDS context. The findings indicate that pre-service teachers benefitted from the structured support provided in the handout but were of the opinion that they require better preparation in HIV/AIDS teacher education.
van Laren, Linda
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Walsh, Shannon, et al.
TEN YEARS LATER: MEMORY, PEDAGOGY & SOCIAL CHANGE IN CAPE TOWN
In early 2002 we started an arts based HIV prevention initiative with a group of young people aged 15-17 from different race, class and geographic areas. Using engaged pedagogical approaches over the next few years, the young people were actively involved in creative writing, video and photography projects. Almost ten years later we reflect on what remains of this work. What difference did it make in their lives? Each has travelled on different journeys and been faced with different constraints that has implications of the effectiveness of a project like this. Our panel brings these participants together to tell us where they now, and as adults, what they have to say about method, memory and social change.
Panel participants: Kaylene Schroeder, Mathew Johannes, Mandla Oliphant, Shannon Walsh, Khayalethu Mofu
University of Johannesburg
MASILINGANE – HIV PREVENTION THROUGH THE PROMOTION OF GENDER EQUALITY
Since gender inequality is recognised as a main driver of HIV infection, this project engaged with teachers and youth in addressing gender based inequalities, including gender based violence. The project involved 13 teachers from 6 (3 high and 3 primary) historically disadvantaged schools in sub-economic areas and 124 learners. Teachers first gained a better understanding of their personal situations through critical reflection on gender constructs and how these influence their everyday interaction at school and in the community, and explored how this links to HIV infection and prevention. They then recruited learners and replicated this process with them. Learners used this knowledge to stage initiatives in their schools to raise awareness of the link between gender and HIV and to engage youth in visualising how they can “turn the tide”. Participatory visual methodologies (drawing, photo voice) were used both as an intervention and as data gathering tools. Analysis of the drawings revealed that gender based violence and unfair role expectations of boys and girls were the main aspects of gender inequality that concerned the learners. They then envisaged ways to address these issues through photo voice. The finished products (drawings, photographs and narratives) were used by learners to presentations to all learners at the schools, including parents and the larger community. A selection of learners from 3 of the schools (1 high school and 2 primary schools) facilitated 3 workshops at an international HIV and AIDS conference to share their work and invite the conference participants to envisage ways to “turn the tide” against gender based violence (high schools) and role inequalities (primary schools). This presentation will report on the learner’s perceptions of gender inequalities and their ideas on how to prevent it via presentation and discussion of their visual products.
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
“PUSHING BACK FROM THE MARGINS: YOUTH, COLONIALISM, AND HIV”
Indigenous youth and other racialized youth in North America are often described as “marginalized”, “vulnerable”, and more “at-risk” when it comes to the incidence of HIV/AIDS and really any health outcome imaginable. Yet why is there no accountability simultaneously described when these words are used for HOW and WHY people become so-called “marginalized”, “vulnerable”, and more “at-risk”? Do these things just magically happen on their own? What are the uncomfortable conversations and realities we need to come to terms with in the ongoing existence of colonialism that Indigenous youth and other racialized youth experience?
This keynote will present not only the HOW and WHY of heightened statistics and narratives not just happening by accident, but what our OWN complicity and accountability is as this continues, and what WE can do ourselves to decolonize the solutions.
Native Youth Sexual Health Network